Monday, November 9, 2009


The Java was resulted in a debt to the Dutch East Indies Government of over 30 million florins, with an annual interest charge of over 2million florins, both secured by the Government of Netherlands. The later verged on bankruptcy with the costly revolt in Belgium against Holland's authority erupting in 1830 and brewing for the next decade. To add to these miseries, the price of coffee slumped , reducing the Government's revenues even further. The Dutch treasury was exhausted and with it any hope of liberalism in colonial policies.


It was to meet such a financial crisis that a new Governor-General with profit making Ideas was sent to Java in 1830Johames Van Den Bosch was not new to the REast Indies. In the first decade of the century, he had served there in the army taken part in the reclaimation, of an state near Batavia and was deported to Europe by the Government because of illiberal and intemperate views. In the Post- Napoleonic era, he emerged as a writer o economic and political subject; "the perverted liberalism" of Raffles and Daendels on Java was among his targets. In 1827, he visited the Dutch East Indies., on his return , he submitted to the Dutch government, his ideas on how the Dutch colony could be administered profitably for the Netherland.Van DenBosch's ideas appealed to the financially desperate King William, who thought of him as the right man to put the Javanese finances in order.

On his part , Van Den Bosch assured the king that the production of export crops could be stepped upto help the Dutch treasury to the extend of 20 millions guilders annually. The culltual system would be ' the life belt on which the Netherlands would be kept afloat". The new system introduced in 1830 , was known as Cultural stelsel or the Cultural system. It as implemented effectively for the next four decades and in certain crops like coffee down to 1917. The 'system' was based on certain assumptions. First, the Javanese however willing they might be, were too ignorant to make any progress unaided and without the guidance of the Dutch authorities. They must be ordered to work. Secondly, a javanese could achieve a satisfactory level of living by working 120 days per year in agriculture . He must not be allowed to spend the rest of time idling and indolence because the later reduced his suitability for labour. Therefore, he should be compelled to devote a part of his lesuretime to the cultivation of export crops. In doing so, he would learn to work.

In this way,Van Den Bosch justified his cultural system and " forced abour". Under previous Governments, there had also been forced labour but Van den Bosch's plan was tohave this labour i lieu of land rent and taxes. The Javanee peasant would devote one-fifth of his lnd or sixty six working days i a year for the cultivation of cash crops for the Government under the supervision of the controllers It was an easy transition from acquiring one-fifth to as much land as was needed for the cultivation of the variousand infact , Van Der Bosch " took what ever amount he pleased , even to one-half and even the whole"

The Colonial Government compelled the Indonesian peasant to cultivate a variety of exort cros. The Government introduced coffee, sugar, indigo, tea, tobacco, cinnamon, colhineal, pepper silk and cotton. The villagers were forced to work at these various cultures surificing his own sawahs his own rice feilds for the benifits of the Government, Meanwhile, the rice srop suffered. Th people did not Question or complain ofr if they did, it was in the rivacy of their own homes, for thu were subject to their native chieftain as their father and grandfather had been before them. Van Der Bosch belived in the indirect control over the indigenous people through their chiefs. The old method of dual Government prevalent during the compoany's regime were revived. By restoring the position to the various chieftain, the Dutchhad their support and the chieftain could rule and command as they wished.

The native hierarchy made use of their position to take from the villager, whatever they wishd. An increment for an incease on production, under the culture system was a certain percentage of cropsgiven to the native hierarchy as well as the Government officials. With this extensive Bureaucracy, eachj level of the heirarchy extracted a certain percetage from the harvests often leaving nothing to the villagers who had done all the work.

Of the crops introduced, coffee was the most lucrative and occupied the largest area under cash crops. Van Den Bosch built road, by forced labour, to the mountain districts where the coffee was grown and storage facilities were constructed in the neighbourhood of each coffee plantations. Each kampong or village in the mountaneous region,was required to plant in 4 year, 600 coffe trees per head of each family and to maintain a sufficient nursery of young trees to heap 600 tres per family headin full bearing.

The cultivation of coffee in the Preanger district, by 184 alone produce 243,554 picules of coffe, while the rest of Java gave to the Governmetn 843,310 piculs of coffee. The sale in Holland of this coffee realised upward of thirty seven millions of florins. The yeild of coffee in 1854 was more than four times as great and about six times as valuable as the same produce before the culture system. The actual profits were even greater because the Government fixed a price on the yeild which was muchlower than the market price.

The cultivation of coffe did not interfere with the subsistence agriculture. The same could not be said about Indigo and Sugar plantation , which required sacrifice of precious sawah (rice feild). Further, the seasons for the cultivation of these cash crops coincide roughly woth that for rice cultivaton. The Dutch officials and Javanese Regents alike compelled the villagers to allot the best parts of their land and often more than the legal one-fifth for the cultivation of export crops. They also forced the peasants to attend forst to the cash crops and then to rice cultivation. The result was a serious curtailment in the production of trice necessary for the peasants sustenance. There were several families in the 1840's in Java. The worst occured in 1850 in residency of Semarang where morethan 300,000 perished because of starvation and the diseases which accompany famine The cause of the famine was the preference given to tobacco crops over the rice crops.

The system as introduced in Java was made compatible with the indegenious social structure and hierarchy The desah was a self supporting unit with emphasis on loyalty to the chief. Attainment of great wealth was frowned upon. Van Der Bosch exploited the situation to the utmost by leaving of crop supervision and delivery of produce lagrely in the hands of such traditional elements of social controls.Some regents employed severe forms of corparal punishment to the reclcitrant . The lash was the favourite tools, but such toutute as hanging by the thumbs, tying the ' culprit' to an ant tre or compelling the eaing of horse faeces were not rare.Nor were the Dutch authorities unaware of the practice . This was revealed by Multauli, a Dutch official, who was distingusted with the culture system. The Government and the chiefs did use some of the profits for the improvements in communications ,but they helped the common man very little. the essence of the system was its benefit for the colonial power , which so sucessfully camouflaged its direct control over the peasentry that Multauli describe the administrative features as " noticing but the Javanese customs into statute terms"

The beneficiariesof the culture system were the Native Regents and their subordinate at the district and village level, the middle men or contractors in charge of delivery of the export crops. Dutch trading companies who would sell the products in the Netherlands. On the return trip, the trading companies would bring finish Dutch goods to be sold, at high price in Java. The trade immensel helped the Dutch economy.

The system as a whole performed a miracle for the utch economy as enormous profits flowed into the Netherland treasury. Van Der Bosch'spromise to his king of securing twenty millions guilders in profit from the East Indies was fulfilled before long. Between 1830 and 1877, a total profit of 837 millions guilders was accured to the Netherlands. Out of this sum, the Government used 650 million guilders for reducing the public debt by 236million guilders; reducing the tax burden of Dutch citizens to the extend of 115 million guildes in the construction of state railways to the tune of 153 million and for building fortification and public facilities to the extent of 146 million guilders. The remaining sum of 182 million guilders was apparent by appropriated into the King's coffer. Beyond this, were the profits made by the Dutch enterprenuers in trade, shipping and banking.


The culture system thus succeded phenomenally in its initial purpose ; saving thje Netherlands from bankruptcy. Indeed it placed Hollanf on a sound economic footing and enabled it to finance its own Industrial revolution. the originator of the system was amply rewarded;Van Der Bosch was made a Baron in 1836 and a cour in 1839.

Monday, October 26, 2009


After the treaty of Yandaboo the Calcutta council had to face the realities of disposing of Assam. David Scott was called upon to tender his views. Scott favoured the establishment of a native dynasty under the protection of the British Government on certain terms and conditions.
1. To restored monarch would have to pay Rs. 8 lakhs to the British annually.
2. Lower Assam as far as Bishnath be retained by the company and Upper Assam be retored to the Ahom prince under the advice of the British Government
3. A tract of land near Sadiya be granted a jagir to Bar Senapati the chief of the Moamarias and employ irregulat sol

Thursday, April 2, 2009

Annexation of Arunachal (NEFA)

Consolidation of British power in the Mizo hills

The Mizo's are Lushai"s came into prominence s recently on account of the uprising in the Mizo hills in March 1966. The early history of the Mizo's is not known with certainity but it is widely held by various authorities that their ancestors were migrants from the Chin hills of Burma. The migration of the Mizo's was force on them by the stonger clans of Burma. Dislodged from the Chin hills , they established themselves in the Mizo hills in the later part of the 18th century . Their territory lies between the borders of burma and Chittagong hill tract of present Bangladesh.

Consolidation of British Powers in the Naga Hills

With the annexation of Assam after the treaty of Yandaboo in1826, the British inheritated from the Ahoms , the legacy of hostile relationship with many hill tribes on the North-East Frontiers. Among these Frontiers tribes, the toughest and the most war like were the various tribes who were collectively known as the “NAGAS”. Theu inhabited the Northern slope of the Patkai and the Barai mountains facing Manipur and Cachar and also the low hills to the south of Sivsagar district beyong Naogaon and North Cachar.
The Anglo-Naga relation in the beginning of the British rule was guided primarily by three factors.
a) The bogey of another war with Burma.
b) Economic interest of the company
c) Administrative expectancy and security of Assam and Cachar Frontier.
The British first come into contact with the Angami country of the Naga hills in 1832, when Capt. Jenkins and Perbenton cross into the Naga territory during their strategic survey of the road communication between Assam and Manipur. The companies government which wanted to rule Assam cheaply did not want to burden their administration with further expedition on what the called “ Jungle beyond Assam”. That was why it was not part of early British policy to occupied the Naga hills. A policy of non-intervention was followed and the Nagas were left to themselves.
But very soon the British Government was confronted with the alarming problems casued by the frequent menace Naga raids on the British subjects of the Naogoan and Cachar frontier. The Angami Nagas used to carry out frequent raids and incursions like the Angamis , the Nagas in the east of the river Dhansiri were divided into a number of warring tribes. Under the sanction of Upper Assam ,these Eastern Naga tribes – The Ao’s, Lotha’s ,Rengma’s came under the sphere of British influence . But peace in Sivsagar and Lakhinpur frontiers was left by violated the inter tribal strife among the Eastern Nagas also by their out rigorous raids on the British Territories.
The protection of the British subjects on the plains and the security of the Assam frontiers, thus became the urgent concern with the companies government which wanted to accomplish these object by incurring minimum expenditure. Thus ,the task of checking Naga aggression was entrusted with the Raja of Manipur and the Cachar chief Tularam Senapati. The local officers including Capt. Jenkins ,commissioner of Assam began to pressurize the supreme government for annexation of the Naga’s territories but in views of the supported thread, it was considered expedient not to take any bold measures against the Naga’s. The government continued to depend on the Raja of Manipur and even encourage him to occupied the Naga territory lying between the Dhansiri and Dayang. As the British relation with Ava was not at all satisfactory, the policy of the government was to strengthen the vassal kingdom of Manipur as a bulwark against Burma and the Naga.
But these measures instead of solving the Naga problem aggravated it and the Naga raids went on increasing. The Naga raids were cause by various motives like procuring Human heads from the raids, capture of placement for slave trade, search of salt-spring at the foot hills, diminishing opportunity for trade in the plains after the advent of the English and their occupation of Assam and Cachar and also because of the oppression and out-rage prepetuarate by the Manipur soldiers.
The earlier policy of depending on Manipuri Raja and Tularam Senapati having prove unsuccessful, it was decided to adopt a policy of coercion and repression. Between 1839-50, the local authority sent as many as 10 military expeditions in the Angami country to show British power and seized and punished the Naga races. The British officers , one after another , went inside the Naga territories and tried all possible means to consolidate the Naga’s who shown extreme antagonism to any sort of British control. The impenetrable jungles and mountains afforded so much facilities to the Angami Naga’s that their apprehension or punishment by British forces became almost an impossible task. In 1847, Capt. John butler , Principal Assiatant of Naogoan succeeded in establishing an advance military post in Samagutin and place , one Bhogchand in-charge of the post. But Bhogchand was killed ,when he interfere in the internal quarrel of the Angami villages of Khonoma and Mozema. The murder of Bhogchand was followed by government retaliatory measures. To advents the death of Bhogchand, military operations were carried out in the Angami country in the course of which the government forces capture Mozema, demolishing the strong Naga fort of Khonoma and attack the Naga village of Kikrema. A bloody battle was fought in which hundred’s of Naga’s were killed. These operations resulted in wanton destruction of Naga villages, burning their granaries and field crops.
While the Commissioner of Assam was hopeful of extending British control over the Naga Hills after the successful expedition against the Kikrema village. The President-in- Council at culcutta directed the British troops to withdraw from the Naga Hills. In his minute of 21st February 1851, Dal Housie, was against establishing British sovereignty over the Naga’s. In ascertain the policy of non-intervention towards the Naga’s , Dal Housie kept in mind the commercial and economic interest of the East India Company. Explaining why the government should not attain to obtain control of the Naga Hills, Dal Housie emphatically stated,” our possession could bring no profit to us and could as costly to us as it would be unproductive”. Dal Housie pointed out that the plundering in road of the Naga’s od the low land of Assam and Cachar could be more easily and cheaply prevented by the establishment of effective means of defence in the British frontiers.
Accordingly, the Government withdrew its forces from Dimapur in 1851 and abstained from any kind of further interference in the affairs of the Naga’s. In 1854, Capt. S.H. Bivar was appointed Special officer(SO) to North Cachar with Asaloo as his headquarter. A condor of out-post was established along the whole of the Naga Frontier but attempts to enroll the Angami’s into the Local police militia meet with little success; also the attempt to armed the border villages failed. The British tried the policy of establishing Kuki colony to used them as buffer colonies against the Naga’s and the Kuki levy was also raise but these was not successful as raiders found it easy to by-pass them.
The laissez faire policy was followed for about 15 years. Dimapur was abandon and Porpathar became the forward post. At one stage , the British contempt abandoning North Cachar due to their inability to protect the area from the depredation of the hostile trib. The policy of absolute withdrawer encourages the Naga’s to become more positively aggressive.
Meanwhile, the rapid extension of tea cultivation along the Sivsagar and Cachar frontier and the tariff in rubber brought down by the Naga trader alter the situation and the Government began to see the opportunity for economic exploitation of the Naga hills. The annexation of lower Burma in 1852, remove the fear of any attack from the Burmese quarter. All these practice combine together to induce the government to abandon the policy of non- interference. Col. Hopkins, the chief commissioner of Assam decided to appoint again a British official at Samaguting and the Lt. Governor of Bengal Cecil Bedon agreed to his decision in order to assert British authority over the Naga and to bring them under the system of administration. Thus in 1866, Samaguting was re-occupied and it was made the headquarters of the Naga hills . The new district comprise of the territory lying to the west of Dhansiri, and the country on both the banks of the Doyang river. An European officer designated as Deputy- Commissioner (D.C) was place in-charge of the new districts of the Naga hills . This was the beginning of a forward policy directed towards the subjugation and controls of the Naga hills.
The permanent establishment of a British officer in the Angami territory had the effect for the time-being in stopping the annual raid upon the British settle- districts.Capt. Batler, the D.C. whose title , was in 1872 , change to that of political agent press the government for adoption of the forward policy and the commissioner Hopkins while forwarding Batler’s report wanted to occupied the whole of the Naga hills by the same method as of the Khasi’s hills was taken. In 1874, the Naga hills district was made over to the charge of a newly appointed Chief Commissioner of Assam. A survey of the whole Naga territory was taken with the purpose of not only exploitation of the hills but also for its political occupation. The Chief Commissioner Keating wanted to occupy the Lotha territory and protect Sivsagar frontier from Lotha raids. While proceeding with the survey party, Capt . Batler was meet with a serious opposition from the Lotha Naga’s resulting his death. The government, as a retaliatory measure , burned the village of Wokha which was responsible for Butler’s death. In 1876, Wokha was occupied and made a sub-divisioner head quarter. In the same year , the district head –quarter of the Naga hills was shifted from Samaguting to Wokha but after the occupation of Kohima in 1878 the district head quarter was transfer to Kohima and Wokha continued to remain as a sub-division . Once a secure footing on the hills had been obtain further territorial expansion became almost inevitable. After taking control of Angami’s and Lotha’s territory the forward policy was initiated in the Ao country which was incorporated in 1889.


The Battle of Khonoma was the last battle that the Angami’s fought to check the British aggression. The circumstance leading to the battle could be trace to the policy of consolidation followed by the British. The Angami’s were not prepared to submit their freedom to a foreign power. The Bhogchand affair has also strain the relations between the Naga’s and the English. Capt. Johnstone interference in the internal feuds of the Naga and the extension of British protection to the village of Mozephema and Siketama made the Nagas more suspicious of the British designs. British protection has been extended to 17 Naga villages by 1878. The people of Mozema and Khonoma . the two leading Angami villages resented these as they thought that they too would be force to submit to the might of the British power. Enraged, they attacked the British and murdered Butler, the British sent an expedition and the people of Mozema surrendered. The people of Khonoma became restless and prepared to face the English . Mr. Damant , the local British officer went against the warning of the interpreter and went to Khonoma village on a consolatory mission and was killed. When the news of is murder reach the British , a column was sent from Manipur under Johnstone and the another from the Khasi hills. On 21st December 1879, huge military troops arrived at Khonoma . On 22nd December 1879, they attacked Khonoma , after days of resistance the people of Khonoma fled and took to guerrilla welfare . However , on account of their supplies being cut they surrender on 27th March 1880 and the war came to an end.
The battle of Khonoma led to the ultimate subjugation of the Naga hills.The 13 rebellious villages were punished . The people of Khonoma were reduce to a state of homeless wanderers and deprived of their fire-arms . A head men was appointed ineach villages by the British which made it easier for them to control the Naga’s.

Monday, March 16, 2009

Rise and consolidation of British Power in Khasi Hills

Between the state of Jaintia and the Hills on the west occupied by Garos is a tract of mountain territory inhabitat by the Khasis. Before the advent of the British ,there were 30 states in the Khasi hills.Each state had an elected chief and each chief had a council without whose sanction no important business could be conducted.
The British first got acquinted with the Khasis in 1765 when the company acquired the Dewani of Synhets from the Mughals. With these acquisition ,the British became a close neighbour of the Khasis and they soon realise the potentialities of trading with them. Accordingly,the British started trade with the Khasis in item like Lime ,Iron ,Silk, Wax ,Ivory and Honey etc. very soon, the British came to monopolised trade in Lime Stone and with the discovery of coal, they began to monopolies trade in coal also. But, these trade was not free from disturbances. The Khasis often raided the plains due to the ill-treatment melted out to the Khasis trader by the traders from the plains. Again in 1823,the chief of Nongstoin claim that some of the lime quarries leased to Wright Englis belong to him, and if any of his neighbour were found working in the quarry ,they would be attack.
In November 1823,David Scott was appointed Agent to the Governor-General and he was entrusted with the responsibility of shaping and consolidating the companies and administration in the North-East frontier.The view expressed by Scott marked the inauguration of a new British policy with regard to the North-East.All these time the British were following a non -intervention policy with regard to the Khasis state.Scott's view was that for a permanent solution to the trade dispute , the British government must established control over all the Khasi Chief.The Government of Bengal Endorsed Scott's view's thus herelding a change of policy.
Scott realised the needs for maintaining good relations with the Khasis when the need for a postal service across from Synhet to Guwahati was urgently fell. Scott was also interested in building roads in the region along with a Sentitorium and Cantonment. Militarily, the proposedroad would reduce the lenght of the march from lower Assam to Synhet. It would also enable the British to keep the Khasi Chiefs under control and fasinitated trade and commerce by giving the Khasis easy access to the markets in the plains.
Scott first negotiated with Duwan Singh,Syiem of Sohra who agreed to allowed the British to construct a road through his territory connecting Assam with Synhet and in return he was to get a Zamindari near Pandua. But the deal was sheveled because Scott got Raja Ram Singh permission to construct a road through his Hima connecting Jaintiapur with Naogaon and the Raha by the Burmese. Scott now had to looked for a new route , he could think of at that time was a road form Bardwar to Synhet.
To achieve his objective Scott resorted to a policy of coersion and negotiation. He ordered the closure of the markets in the plains to Khasi's traders and stated that he would annex Bardwar in the plains which belong to the Syiem of Nongkhlaw. At the sametime, he indicated that a normal trade relationship would be maintained and Bardwar would remain a part of Hima Nongkhlaw provided the Syiem Tirot Singh permitted the East India Company to Construct his territory linking the Surma valley and the Bramaputra valley. Scott further asked Tirot Singh to get the consent of all the Khasi chief to give the company the right of passage as the road would further affect others areas beyond the jurisdiction of Nongkhlaw syiem.
Accordingly,Tirot Singh conveyed an assembly at Nongkhlaw and messages were sent to all the Khasi's Syiem's to attend the meeting. Scott and his men too were arrived at Nongkhlaw on 3rd November 1826, Scott was highly interested by the mode of Khasi sitting-at-council at by the strict observation of rules that guided and govern such sittings. Tirot singh explain the object of the meeting and requested the different orators to express their sentiments on the proposition of the British government. The debate on the issue lasted for two days and ended in favour of the proposition. The resolution of the assembly was embodied in a treaty which was concluded with the British government. Accordingly, to these treaty the Khasi's agreed to aid the British government in the construction of the road,furnish men and materials and donate lands for building residential Quarters. British protection followed as cordially. The trety also required the Syiem Tirot Singh to allowed free passage of the companies troops in his territory, to furnish materials and attain the repairing works in connection with the road and to place himself under British protection against a foreign enemy.
Soon, after the conference was disperse, cott ordered a survey of the road and construction work was started soon after. The road started from Ranigudam passing through Jirang, Nongkhlaw,Sohiong, Sohrarin, Sohra and crossing through the war -slopes . It terminates at Chatak in Synhet district.A small station was establish at Nongkhlaw with residential quartr. A company of sepoy's under British Lieutanants was place to supervise the construction and adequate provision for the work was furnish by Tirot singh. Even Kaksan Syiem, mother of Tirot singh, bore a special affection towards David Scott.Thus in the beginning ammicable relationship prevail.But Tirot singh soon realised that his agreement with the British was in nature of an alliance between a superior power and the Syiem of a petty state and not an alliance between equal powers.Many incident serve to demonstrate these fact.

The Dimarua a few miles from Guwahati was held by Khyrim as an appendage from the Ahoms but the actual management was in the hands of a subordinate chief who held his appointment from unpaid tribute to Khyrim.David Scott occupied Dimarua after the Burmese retreat and forbade the Syiem of Khyrim from colledting tribute for the chief. These angered Syiem Bormanick and emerge down to Dimarua to seize the revenue collected by the Revenue officer of the East India Company in 1828. He also appointed a Basan in that area and vow to return again the following year to collect the tribute. Scott decided to take action against Khyrim and he called upon the Jaintia Raja and other Khasi's Syiem's to aid the British against Khyrim.These led to tension among the Khasi Syiem's as they realised the imperialist design of the British.

Scott also did not keep his promise of restoring Bardwar to Tirot singh. Tirot singh was also disgusted with the refusal of the company to furnish him,military assistance against Balran singh, the Syiem of Rani, against whom Tirot singh and Bormanick ,Syiem of Khyrim had made a common stand. He told the revenue Superintendent of the Company at Bardwar,” Mr. Scott made friendship with me saying your enenmy is Companies enenmy and that he would relinguish the Bardwar revenue both in money and in paiks. He has not done it and has the wish to give troops to my enemy”. On these convince Tirot singh ,that the British would not honour any other terms of the Treaty in future. He now fully realized the danger of the agreement ,he made with the company for the road construction. Knowing that it would appear upward if he suddenly stop the construction , he waited for a better oppourtinity to oppose it without actually breaking the treaty.
Again the high handedness of the military at Nongkhlaw ,there they harash the poor inhabitant and other misdeeds eventually sowed the seed of mistrust and hostility in the heart of the Khasi’s. Many of them were not informed of the road construction and some Headmen complain to Tirot singh that their opinion was neglected in these important matter. They also realized that British imperialism was taking grip over the hills and a rumour was floated that the British would levied taxes on the Khasis. All these combine to bring about a general discontentment and a manice and made the conflict between the Khasis and the British inevitable.
Early in 1829,Tirot singh made plans to expel the aliens from the country.He consider himself no longer bound by the treaty and threw his lot with Bormanick and other chief’s against the British.On 1st April 1829, a conference of Khasis Syiems was held at Nongkhlaw wherein it was decided to drive out the British from their land. The plan was a general massacres of all aliens at Nongkhlaw and the destruction of the companies post. The following day the plan was put into action , the Companies gruesome at Nongkhlaw was attack and Lt.Bedingfeild and Burlton of the Bengal Artillery along with several of the Companies men were killed. Scott who happen to be in Nongkhlaw at the time of conference , however, manage to escape to Sohra and then to Cherra. From Cherra, Scott send a message to the authorities at Synhet and Guwahati and , Captain Lister at once set out for the hills. From Guwahati, Lt.Betch proceeded to Nongkhlaw to deal with the rebels
Thus the Anglo-Khasi war begin. It was the conflict of Patriotism against Imperialism ,between Justice and Injustice, a conflict which represent the Universal love for freedom , peace, harmony and friendship without racial discrimination.

The Nongkhlaw incident started off a wide spread movement all over the Khasi hills to free the land from the foreign power. The initial impact of the movement was that it brought unity among the Khasi Syiems in a move to oust the British from the land, all differences being set aside in the face of an external threat. By depriving the Khasis ,the right to use the Duars in their economics transaction , Scott under-estimated the ability of the Khasis to unite against the company.he ignored the growing resentment exhibited by the people against the construction of the road and the British presence in the hills. His refusal to acknowledge Syiem Bormanick’s claim to the Dirmarua and the levy of taxes on him when he sent his men to collect the revenues further anatagonised the Khasis .Gradually, other Syiems began to realized the true nature of the company and apprehending the danger to the independence of their Kingdom, they gave their full support to Tirot singh . Chief among them were the Syiems of Myriaw, Jirang, Rambrai, Mawsynram,Bhowal, Nongpoh, Maharam , Mawieng and other petty units. Messangers were sent to Jaintia hills, Bhutan , the Ahomking Chandrakhanta and to the Singpho’s to solicits their help to oust the British.The Khasi’s states remaining neutral were Cherrapunjee,Khyriem,Langrin,Nongspung and Nongstoin. Except for U Duwan singh of Cherra who was a cluster allies of the East India Company, the neutral state remain as mute spectators to the incidents. The military regiments of the company were composed of Gorkhas, Sikhs, Manipur and the Assam corps. From time to time ,military contingent were dispatch from Synhet and Golpara district

The movement was launch in the first week of April 1829, began with a set back for the Khasis . The entire strategy of the operation was to capture David Scott and his men but Scott manage to escape from Nongkhlaw at the behest pf an inside informer- Ka Ksang Syiem, the mother of Tirot singh. However, Tirot singh and his associates put up a stiff resistance against the British and succeded in killing , along the outsiders, the two British officers station in Nongkhlaw- Lt.Bedingfeild and Burlton. He then, advance to Cherra to apprehend Scott who was hiding in the court of Diwan singh but once again Scott is kept in Synhet from where he sent large re-inforcement to put off the Khasi attack.
War broke out on two front _Kamrup and Synhet of the Khasi Border and continued for many months.Both sides suffered heavy casualties but the Company with its large army and superior arms got the better of the hill men . The Synhet Light Infantry under Captain. Lister quickly established control over the southern hills. From here he worked his way towards Tirot singh’s state over-running village after village on the way and destroyed many hearths and homes.
The stiff resistance offered by the British led Tirot singh and his men to device a new stratergy of grullera welfare where surprise attacks and raids were made on the enemy. To counter these offensive Scott formulated a plan to break the unity of the Khasi. Having got Duwan singh of Cherra as a strong ally against Tirot singh, he worked out a scheme where agents were to various states offering peace treaties to their rulers. The scheme worked , some Syiems, anxious to save their kingdoms from being destroyed by the companies men , sign treaties of friendship with the British Authoritiesby which they tender their political allegiance to the British; some of them agree to pay indemnities , others surrenders their economy where some ceded part of their territories to the British and subjected themselves to their rule.
These development did not deter Tirot singh who continued his struggle and ransacked a number of British outpost. Seeing his determination, Scott sought for reconciliation but Tirot singh , distrusted the British and did not relent. The war went on with both parites asopting new strategies and devising new measures. While the Khasi took steps to re-inforce their military organisation by making new recruitments, training in warfare and espionages and enlisting the support of frienly states within and outside the Khasi hills. The British resorted to sowing seeds of dissention in the Khasi camp and imposing economic blockage to compel the hill men to surrender. But nothing could quench the flame of the movement . In the course of the movement, Scott died of illness in Cherra in 1831. Fighting went on till 1833 when Tirot singh seeing the damage cause by the war to their economy and the sufferings of the people decided to accept the British offered for a settlement . Also some of the indepent state like Khyrim, Longrin , Nongspung and Nongstoin under the British pressure, used their influence on Tirot singh to accept the British offer of truce.

While negatiation were going on for a settlement , Tirot singh was tricked by the British and arrested. He was taken to Cherra and tried according to British law but considering the faith which Khasi’s bestowed on him and the genius with which he manage the whole operation against them, the British authorities tried to retain Tirot singh as Syiem of Nongkhlaw on the condition that he accepted British over-lordship but Tirot singh who valued his independence and the freedom of his homeland more than anything else refuse the British offer. He was sent into exile to Dacca jail where he died as a political prisoner.
With the capture of Tirot singh, the British took rapid steps to complete the annexation of the Khasi hills. The company put itself to administration, concentration and consolidation of power. Cherrapunjee became the sit of the Government where the political agent to the Governor-General was station. He was incharge of the relations between the Company and the Khasi states. The area which took an active part in the uprising were punish.They were asked to pay heavy tribute but later these measure was withdrawn. Some small villages were confiscated from the native rulers and annex to the British dormain. Nongspung, Khyrim, Nongstoin,Langrin and Cherrapunjee were recognized as Independent states under the company while other states were recognized as semi-independent . On 29th March 1834, Rajan singh was install as Raja of Nongkhlaw and he allowed the British government to construct the road across his territory and supply labour and materials as required.
In 1836, another movement agains the British tok place under Syiem Sngap of Maram who resisted the British occupation of their land. The agitation lasted till 1839, when the British with its surerior force compel the Maram Syiem to surrender.
Thus the British became the Paramount power in the Khasi hill.Capt. Lister was appointed political agent over village directly under British control,he was empowered to exercise magisterial functions. The chiefs were allowed to retain entire jurisdiction within their own limits,only they have to submit to the General Superintendent of the Political agent. In the case of restore chiefs and independent chiefs , the Political agent was specially forbidden to interfere further than he was entitle to do politicallu. But since the powers of the Political agent were not clearly define , he was allowed to correspondent directly with the Governor-General on political matter. Thus, we find that though on paper every possible care was taken to retain the independence of the Khasi chief and though originally a separate status was observed with regard to the Independent states gradually the line of distinction wasobliterated and all the Khasi states sank into the position of dependent principalities.


The Khasi war of liberty left a deep scar on the Khasi society. The movement changes the whole political scene of the Khasis. The unity that emerge among the Khasis were temporary; it could not with stand the political tactics employed by the British in their thirst for territorial and economic expansion. One Khasi Syiem after another was won over by the British and compel to sign a treaties of loyalty with the company acknowledging their subservience. That was why a statesmen of the stature of Tirot singh was put down by the foreign force. The movement produce warriors of the caliber of Warmaniae, Mukin of Mawsmai, Lorshon Jarain, Monbhut, Jidor singh who brought out the best in Khasi patriotism but none of them could sustain the swords of the enemy.
Another important outcome of the war was the erosion of the power of the Syiems. Through the treaties of loyalty sign by them with the British authorities, many of them surrendered their political power to the government and subjected themselves to its supremacy. In 1859, the government promulgated Sunnader as a lincience at the investiture of the Syiem. Through its provisions the government could acquire land for military and civil purpose and could transfer free land and waste land into government land. The ultimate power of the Sunnader was that if had the right to remove any Syiem from the office if he failed to satisfy the authorities. After independence the power of the Syiems was further reduce. He became dependent on an elected body for the District Council.
The movement also affected the economy of the land. The Khasi economy suffered a serious set back as a results of the tide economy measures adopted by the British. Even after the war ended , the Khasis could not restore their economy due to the monopolistic hold of the British.
The movement had its repercussions on the social life of the people. For the first time, the Khasis came into direct contact with a foreign ulture and were quick to absorb it. When the Missionaries came to the hills to propagate Christianity, it easily found a large following. Christianity brought with it Western education which accelerated the pace of modernization among the Khasis

Sunday, March 15, 2009

First Burmese War

The Anglo- Burmese war 1824-26 has been regarded by some as a revolution as it had effects of far reaching importance in the imperial history of the British and upon the history of modern North-EastIndia.In its origin the war was primarily defensive being cause by Burmese actof agression. The war was the result of the policy of expansion pursued by the king of Ava in the later part of the 18th Century and the early 19th Century.

The main cause of the first Anglo- Burmese war can be attributed to the weakness of the native monarchies of the North-East India,the imperial policy of the Burmese commercial rivalry. The decay of the two traditional monarchies of North-East India and the war of sucession attracted the Burmese to interfere in their internal affairs and establish their mastery over these region which inturn brought them into conflict with the British who had trade interest in these areas.

In 1784, the Burmese under King Bodowpaya conqured the independent kingdom of Arakan. The conquest of Arakan increased increased the political conditions and ambitions of the Burmese and led to continious misunderstanding with the British who posses the district of Chittagong contiguous was here that the British had their first experience of what a neighbour the Burmese might be.Arakan furgatives took shelter in the British territory and used it as a based for making retaliation raid upon the Burmese territory. The armed Burmese forces pursued the furitives and violated the Burmese borders.The Governor-General Lord Wellesly did not pay much attention to the happening on these frontiers but did arrange for settling the furgitives in large industrial commmunities instead of handling them ones to the Burmese. This was bitterly resented by the Burmese.

Another factor embittering relation appear in 1881. Khyenba, the son of a District officer in Arakan who had turn traitor and betray his Country to the Burmese,now joint the furgitives in the British territory,organised them into a fighting force and invaded Arakan. The Governor of Arakan blame the British for these but the Culcutta authorities perfer thier innocentcy and sent Captain Canning to Burma to removethe misunderstanding . The mission failed and these was the last British approach in communication with the king of Ava.

Inorder to established Burmese influence over the state lying between Burma and British India, Bowdopaya in 1813 sent Marjit Singh ,son of Jai Singh on the throne of Manipur after dispossesing his elder brother Chaurajit Singh.Marjit acknowledge his independent on the Burmese king and secede the Kabow Valley to his protector. On the death of Bowdopaya in May 1813 , his grandson Bagyidaw succeded him . Marjit Singh had failed to attend the cornoration of the new King,who then device to diposed him. In 1819, Mangi Mahabandula led an army into Manipur;Marjit fled to Cachar and Bandula return to Burma after placing a Burmese nominature to the thorne and leaving a garrision ot the Capital Imphal.The Burmese next turn their attention to Assam , the deplorable internal situation in the Ahom Kingdom made her a prey to the imperial design of the Burmese as well as the British . After the death of King Gaurinath in 1794, his successors Kamaleswar and Chandrakanta were puppets in the hand of Purananda Burhagohain. Purananda main objectives was top overcome the crisis of the Monarchy by adopting the policy of concessions and compromises as well as by thread of Arms if conciliatory failed, to achieve results. He entered into peaceful relations with the neighbouring rulers and organised a standing army to quell internal disturbance and restore comperative peace. But Purananda's dictatorial regime was resented by a section of the nobility including the king Chandrakanta and a plot was hatch to destroy him. Badachandra Barphukan decided to seek British help to oust Purananda and to place the legitimate king Chandrakanta on the Ahom Throne. The British refuse him any help. Badanchandra ,then appeal, to the Burmese king Bodopaya for help and the later gladly responded to his appeal because he saw in it an oppourtunity to push onto Assam which was contiguous to British territory.

In March 1817,Burmese army was sent to Jorhat ,Purananda found none to assist him ;he was defestedand died soon after. Chandrakanta was placed on the throne and Vadanchandra was appointed as Prime Minister with a new designation- Mantri Phukan. A conference on nobles and officers resolved to sent to the Burmese king a sum of Rs:-100,000 and a priincess and the Burmese troops return to Burma in April 1817. Henceforth, the Burmese king looked upon the Ahom kingdom as a subservient protected state. The British had commercial interest in the Ahom kingdom and so here the clash between the British and the Burmese originated.

Soon after ,Badanchandra was assasinated at the instigation of some nobles who did not approve of his action in calling a foreign army into Assam and reducing the kingdom to Burmese vassalages. Chandrakanta was depose and Purandas Singha was proclaim king in 1818.

The Developments were reported to Bagyidaw and he decided to restore Burmese influence in the Ahom Court. Accordingly, the second Burmese inviasion 1819, resulted in the restoration of the Authority of Chandrakanta and the expulsion of Purandaf . Chandrakanta arrange to sent a princess again to the Burmese King as a fresh token of his allegiance. However, in 1821, Chandrakanta under the influence of his Barbarua Patalong tried to shake off the Burmese yoke. These led to a third Burmese invasion under Minigimaha Tiwa. Chandrakanta fled to Golpara and the Burmese occupied Assam.

The conflict between the British and the Burmese inevitable for supremacy over Assam. The Burmese empire now touch the British borders in many fronts like Golpara, Chittagong, Cachar and Jaintia. It was out of these frointier disputes that troubles arose. The Burmese, inflated with success,looked upon the British with contempt and assume a more aggressive attitude in their dealing with them. From the end of 1822 to the beginning of 1824, the action of the Burmese were marked by the intention to offer studied different front of the British hoping that in the event of hostilities victory was bound to be there's

The Burmese commander General Bandula wrote to the British government in Bengal to surrender Chittagong ,Dacca, Murshidabad and Kasim Bazar, failing which they would invade british territory.Both Chandrakanta and Purananda who fled to British territory engineered a series of raid on Burmese occupied Assam.However,Chandrakanta was finally defeated by Bandula on 21st June 1822 at Assam Choukiand these mark the extinction of the Ahom authority in Assam. The British had aided the Ahom's in their raids and they now refuse to surrender Chandrakanta and Pulandar to the Burmese.The Burmese retaliated by attacking the British frointier in Habraghat Pargana, North of Garo Hills. In August 1822, the Burmese demanded from the British an Island in Bramaputra.

David Scott was appointed aas agent to the Governor-General to study the development in North-East India. He recommended military action against the Burmese but the Board of Directors were not in favour of war. A year later,Burmese occupied a small Britsh outpost at Shahpuri Island in the Bay of Bengal. The Governor-General Lord Amherst ,tried to reach an amicable settlement with the Burmese government but his patience was exhausted when two British officers were treacherously seized by the Burmese.

In the meantime,the Government recieved information that the Burmese were collecting troops in Assam,Manipur and Arakan to attack the British and also to occupied Cachar and Jaintia kingdom.In these situation the British entered into a treaty with Gobinchandra of Cachar who does become a vassal of the British.Raja Ram Singh of Jaintia also signed a treaty with the British b;y which he became an alliance of the British. hus both, Cachar and Jaintia became partners to the "General system of defensive arrangement for the frontier" engineered by the Government of Fort William.

On 5th March 1824, the British declarre war on Burma, the war broke out in three sectors- Assam. Arakan and Rangoon. By 1825, the Burmese were expell from Assam and Manipur.In Burma itself the Burmese Army face reverses compelling the king baghidagh to end the hostility by signing the Treaty of Yandaboo on March 24th 1826. By these Treaty ,the Burmese King renounce all claims upon and promise to abstain from future interference in the principalities of Assam, Cachar, Jaintia and Manipur.He agreed to recognised Gambhir Singh as the Raja of Manipur.The political consequence of the treaty was the annexation of Assam to the British empire. Later on the adjoining hills areas followed suit thereby making the British the paramount power in the region.